67. "Rationalizing energy level alignment by characterizing Lewis acid/base and ionic interactions at printable semiconductor/ionic liquid interfaces" Materials Horizons2022, DOI: 10.1039/D1MH01306H.
66. "Enhanced Infrared Photodiodes Based on PbS/PbClx Core/Shell Nanocrystals" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2021
65. "Metastable Dion-Jacobson 2D structure enables efficient and stable perovskite solar cells" Science2021
64. "Tuning Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) Transconductance toward Zero Gate Voltage in the Faradaic Mode" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces2021, 13, 42, 50176–50186.
63. "Zinc Oxide-Perylene Diimide Hybrid Electron Transport Layers for Air-Processed Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Devices" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2021, 13, 41, 49096–49103.
62. "A Multi-modal Approach to Understanding Degradation of Organic Photovoltaic Materials" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2021, 13, 37, 44641–44655.
61.  "Defect quantification in metal halide perovskites: The solid-state electrochemical alternative", Energy and Environmental Science2021, 14, 4840-4846.
60. "High-performance methylammonium-free ideal band-gap perovskite solar cells", Matter2021, 4, 4, 1365-1376.
59.  "Surface-Activated Corrosion in Tin-Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells" ACS Energy Letters2020, 5, 11, 3344-3351.
58. "Slot-Die-Coated Ternary Organic Photovoltaics for Indoor Light Recycling" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2020, 12, 39, 43684–43693
57. "Ion diffusion coefficients in poly(3-alkylthiophenes) for energy conversion and biosensing: role of side-chain length and microstructure" Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2020, 8, 13319-13327.
56. "Thermally Induced Formation of HF4TCNQ in F4TCNQ-Doped Regioregular P3HT", Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2020, 11, 16, 6586–6592.
55. "Overcoming Redox Reactions at Perovskite-Nickel Oxide Interfaces to Boost Voltages in Perovskite Solar Cells" Joule 2020, 4, 8, 1759-1775.
54. "Impact of Self-Assembled Monolayer Design and Electrochemical Factors on Impedance-Based Biosensing" Sensors 202020(8), 2246;
53.  "Nanoscale Visualization and Multiscale Electrochemical Analysis of Conductive Polymer Electrodes" ACS Nano, 2019, 13, 13271-13284.
52.  "Stability of push–pull small molecule donors for organic photovoltaics: spectroscopic degradation of acceptor endcaps on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene cores" Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2019, 7, 19984-19995. 
51. "Intersystem sub-population charge transfer and conformational relaxation preceding in situ conductivity in electrochemically doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electrodes" Chemistry of Materials, 2019, 17, 6870-6879.
50.  "Stability of Charge Transfer States in F4TCNQ-doped P3HT" Chemistry of Materials, 2019, 31, 17, 6986-6994.
49.  "Microstructure-dependent electrochemical properties of chemical-vapor deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films" Synthetic Metals (Invited), 2019, 253, 26-33.
48. "Approaching single molecule sensing: predictive sweat sensor design for ultra-low limits of detection" Proceedings Volume 11010, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XX, 110100F, 2019, doi: 10.1117/12.2518543
47. "Printable transistors for wearable sweat sensing" Proceedings Volume 11020, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology XV, 1102000, 2019,
46. "Predicting limits of detection in real-time sweat-based human performance monitoring" Proceedings Volume 11020, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology XV, 1102000, 2019,

45.  "High-Throughput Experimental Study of Wurzite Mn1-xZnxO Alloys for Water Splitting Applications" ACS Omega, 2019, 4,4, 7436-7447,

44. "Correlation of Coexistent Charge Transfer States in F4TCNQ-Doped P3HT with Microstructure" Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2018, 9, 6871-6877,
43. "Controlling the Kinetics of Charge Transfer at Conductive Polymer/Liquid Interfaces through Microstructure" The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2018, 122 (37), pp 21210–21215.
42. "Energy Level Alignment of Molybdenum Oxide on Colloidal Lead Sulfide (PbS) Thin Films for Optoelectronic Devices" ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2018, 10, 30, 24981-24986.
41.  "Normal and inverted regimes of charge transfer controlled by density of states at polymer electrodes" M. Rudolph and E.L. Ratcliff.  Nature Communications, 2017, Article 148.  doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01264-2.  
40.  "Critical Interface States Controlling Rectification of Ultrathin NiO–ZnO p–n Heterojunctions" K. Xerxes Steirer, Kai Lin Ou, Neal R. Armstrong, Erin L. Ratcliff.  ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2017, 9, 36, 31111-31118.  
39. Introduction to themed issue: Electronic Materials.  Ratcliff, E.L, Shallcross, R.C., Armstrong, N.R.  Chemical Reviews, 2016, 116, 12821-12822.

38.  Metal Oxide Heterointerfaces in Hybrid Electronic Platforms.  McLachlan, M.A. and Ratcliff, E.  Advanced Materials, 2016, 28, 20 3801.

37.  "Conduct-induced mechanisms in organic photovoltaics: a steady-state 
and transient study.”  Cowan, S.R.; Li, J.V.; Olson, D.C.; Ratcliff, E.L. 
Advanced Energy Materials, 2015, 5, 1,1400549.
36. “Influence of Backbone Fluorination in Regioregular Poly(3-alkyl-4-foro)thiophenes.”  Fei, Z.; Boufflet, P.; Wood, S.; Wade, J.; Moriarty, J.; Gann, E.;Ratcliff, E. L.; McNeill, C. R.; Sirringhaus, H.; Kim, J.-S.; Heeney, M. Journal of the American Chemical Society  2015, 137, 6866. 

35.  "Influence of Molecular Orientation on Charge-Transfer Processes at Phthalocyanine/Metal Oxide Interfaces and Relationship to Organic Photovoltaic Performance.”Lin, H.-C.; MacDonald, G. A.; Shi, Y.; Polaske, N. W.; McGrath, D. V.; Marder, S. R.; Armstrong, N. R.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Saavedra, S. S. “ The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2015, 119 (19), 10304-10313.





34.  “Integrating Theory, Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Device Efficiency to Design Donor Materials for Organic Photovoltaics: a Case Study Including 12 Donors”  Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.  Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3(18), 9777-9788.


33.  “Quantifying the Extent of Contact Doping at the Interface between High Work Function Electrical Contacts and  Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)"  Shallcross, R. C.; Stubhan, T.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Kahn, A.; Brabec, C. J.; Armstrong, N. R. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2015, 6,8, 1303-1309.




32.  ”Nickel oxide interlayer films from nickel formate-ethylenediamine precursor: Influence of annealing on thin film properties and photovoltaic device performance.” Steirer, K. X.; Richards, R. E.; Sigdel, A. K.; Garcia, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Hammond, S. R.; Baker, D. J.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Curtis, C.; Furtak, T. E., Ginley, D.S.; Olson, D.C.; Armstrong, N.R.; Berry, J.J. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015. 3, 20, 10949-10958.


31.  "Systematic electrochemical oxidative doping of P3HT to probe interfacial charge transfer across polymer-fullerene interfaces.” Jenkins, J.L.; Lee, P.A.; Nebesny, K.W.; Ratcliff, E.L.  “Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2014, 2, 45, 19221-19231.



30.  "Semi-random vs Well-defined Alternating Donor-acceptor Copolymers."  Braunecker, W.A.; Oosterhout, S.D.; Owczarczyk, Z.R.; Kopidakis, N; Ratcliff, E.R; Ginley, D.S.; Olson, D.C.  ACS Macro Letters 2014, 3(7), 622-627.

29.  “Chemically-controlled reversible and irreversible extraction barriers in polycarbazole-based organic solar cells.” Cowan, S.R.; Schulz, P.; Giordano, A.J.; MacLeod, B.A.; Garcia, A.; Marder, S.; Kahn, A.; Ginley, D.S.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Olson, D.C. Advanced Functional Materials, accepted, 10.1002/adfm.201400158.

28.  “Modification of the Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide Surface with Self-Assembled Monolayers of Phosphonic Acids: A Joint Theoretical and Experimental Study.” Li, Hong; Ratcliff, E.L.; Sigdel, A.K.; Giordano, A.J.; Marder, S.R.; Berry, J.J.; Bredas, J.L. Advanced Functional Materials, 2014, 24(23), 3593–3603.

27.  “Formation of interfacial traps upon surface protonation in small molecule solution processed bulk heterojunctions probed by photoelectron spectroscopy.” Ratcliff, E.L.; Bakus, R.C.; Welch, G.C.; van der Poll, T.; Garcia, A.; Cowan, S.R.; Bazan, G.C.; Olson, D.C.  Journal of Materials Chemistry, C, 2013, 1, 6223-6234.

26. “Deciphering the Metal-C60 Interface in Optoelectronic Devices: Evidence for the C60 Reduction by Vapor Deposited Al.”Matz, D.L.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Meyer, J.; Kahn, A.; Pemberton, J.   ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 5(13), 6001+, 2013.

25. “Energy level alignment and morphology of Ag and Au nanoparticle recombination contacts in tandem planar heterojunction solar cells.” Steirer, K.X.; MacDonald, G.A.; Olthof, S.; Gantz, J.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Kahn, A.; Armstrong, N.R.  Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2013, 117, 43, 22331-22340.

24. “Investigating the influence of interfacial contact properties on open circuit voltages in organic photovoltaic performance: work function versus selectivity.” Ratcliff, E.L; Garcia, A.; Paniagua, S.A.; Cowan, S. R.; Girordano, A.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Marder, S.R.; Berry, J.J.; Olson, D.C. Advanced Energy Materials, 3 (5) 647-656, 2013.

23. “Highly-Tunable Nickel Cobalt Oxide as a Low-Temperature p-Type Contact in Organic Photovoltaic Devices.” Ndione, Paul F.; Garcia, Andres; Widjonarko, N. Edwin; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Olson, Dana C.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Richards, Robin E.; Ratcliff, Erin L.; Berry, Joseph J. Advanced Energy Materials, 3 (4), 524-531, (2013).

22.  “Orientation and order of phenyl phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers on transparent conductive oxides: A combined NEXAFS, PM-IRRAS, and DFT study.”  Gliboff, Matthew; Sang, Lingzi; Knesting, Kristina; Schalnat, Matthew; Mudalige, Anoma; Ratcliff, Erin; Li, Hong; Sigdel, Ajaya; Berry, Joseph; Nordlund, Dennis; Giordano, Anthony; Seidler, Gerald; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth; Pemberton, Jeanne; Ginger, David.  Langmuir, 29 (7), 2166-2174, (2013).

21. “Built-in potential in conjugated polymer diodes with changing anode work function: Interfacial states and deviation from the Schottky-Mott Limit.”  MacLeod, Bradley; Horwitz, Noah; Ratcliff, Erin; Jenkins, Judith; Armstrong, Neal; Giordano, Anthony; Hotchkiss, Peter; Marder, Seth; Campbell, Charles; Ginger, David. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 3 (9), 1202-1207 (2012).  

20.  “Improvement of interfacial contacts for new small molecule bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics.”Garcia, A.; Welch, G.C.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Ginley, D.S.; Bazan, G.C.; Olson, D.C.  Advanced Materials,24,31, 2012.

19.  “Electron transfer processes in monolayer-tethered zinc phthalocyanines: Characterization by waveguide spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry, and potential-modulated attenuated total reflectance (PM-ATR).” Lin, H.C.; Polaske, N.W.; Oquendo, L.E.; Gliboff, M.; Knesting, K.M.; Norlund, D.; Ginger, D.S.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Beam, B.M.; Armstrong, N.R.; McGrath, D.V.; Saavedra, S.S.   Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.,3 (9), 1154-1158 (2012).

18. “Surface composition, work function, and electrochemical characteristics of gallium-doped zinc oxide.” Ratcliff, E.L.; Sigdel, A.K.; Macech, M.R.; Nebesny, K.; Lee, P.A.; Ginley, D.S.; Armstrong, N.R.; Berry, J.J.  Thin Solid Films,520 (17) 5652-5663, 2012. 

17. “Energy level alignment in PCDTBT:PC70BM solar cells: solution processed NiOx for improved hole collection and efficiency.”  Ratcliff, E.L.; Meyer, J.; Steirer, K.X.; Armstrong, N.R.; Olson, D.C.; Kahn, A.  Organic Electronics,13, 744-749 (2012).

16. “Evidence for near-surface NiOOH species in solution-processed NiOx selective interlayer materials: impact on energetics and the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaics.”  Ratcliff, E.L.; Meyer, J.; Steirer, K.X.; Garcia, A.; Berry, J.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Olson, D.C.; Kahn, A.; Armstrong, N.R. Chemistry of Materials 23(22) 4988-5000 (2011).

15. “Phosphonic acid functionalized asymmetric phthalocyanines: Synthesis, modification of indium tin oxide (ITO), and charge transfer.” Polaske, N.W.; Lin, H.; Tang, A.; Mayukh, M.; Oquendo, L.E.; Green, J.T.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Armstrong, N.R.; Saavedra, S.S.; McGrath, D.V.  Langmuir, 27(24) 14900-14909 (2011).

14. "Sputtered nickel oxide thin film for efficient hole transport layer in polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell," Widjonarko, N.E.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Perkins, C.I.; Sigdel, A.K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P.F.; Gillaspie, D.T.; Ginley, D.S.;  Olson, D.C.; Berry, J.J. "Thin Solid Films, 520(10) 3813-3813, 2012.

13. “Enhanced efficiency in plastic solar cells via energy matched solution processed NiOx interlayers.”  Steirer, K.X; Ndione, P.F.; Widjonarko, N.E.; Lloyd, M.T.; Meyer, J.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Kahn, A.; Armstrong, N.R.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Berry, J.J.; Olson, D.C. Advanced Energy Materials, 1 (5) 813-820 (2011).

12. “Selective interlayers and contacts in organic photovoltaic cells.”  Ratcliff, E.L.; Zacher, B.; Armstrong, N.R. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2 (11) 1337-1350. (2011).

11.  “A planar, chip-based, dual-beam refractometer using an integrated organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors.”  Ratcliff, E.L.; Veneman, P.A.; Simmonds, A.; Zacher, B.; Huebner, D.; Saavedra, S.S.; Armstrong, N.R.  Analytical Chemistry 82 (7) 2734-2742 (2010).

10. “Ferrocene functional polymer brushes on indium tin oxide via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.” Kim, B.Y.; Ratcliff, E.L.; Armstrong, N.R.; Kowalewski, T.; Pyun, J.  Langmuir, 26(3) 2083-2092. (2010).

9. “Work function control of hole-selective polymer/ITO anode contacts: an electrochemical doping study.” Ratcliff, E.L.; Lee, P.A.; Armstrong, N.R.   Journal of Materials Chemistry 20(13) 2672-2679 (2010).

8. “Colloidal polymerization of polymer-coated ferromagnetic nanoparticles in colbalt oxide nanowires.” Keng, P.Y.; Kim, B.Y.; Shim, I.B.; Sahoo, R.; Veneman, P.E.; Armstrong, N.R.; Yoo, H.; Pemberton, J.E.; Bull, M.M.; Griebel, J.J., Ratcliff, E.R., Nebesny, K.G., Pyun, J.  ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 10, 3143-3157.

7. “Oxide Contacts in Organic Photovoltaics: Characterization and Control of Near-Surface Composition in Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO)." Armstrong, N.R.; Veneman, P.A.; Ratcliff, E.; Placencia, D.; Brumbach, M.   Accounts of Chemical Research, 42 (11) 1748-1757.  (2009).

6. Colloidal Polymerization of Polymer Coated Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles into Cobalt Oxide Nanowires,” Keng, P.Y.; Kim, B.Y.; Shim, I.; Sahoo, R.; Veneman, P.A.; Armstrong, N.R.; Yoo, H.; Pemberton, J.E.; Bull, M.M; Griebel, J.J; Ratcliff, E.L.; Nebesny, K.W.; Pyun, J.  “ ACS Nano, 3 (10), 3143-3157, (2009).

5. “Organic/Organic’ Heterojunctions: Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaic Devices.” Armstrong, N.R.; Wang, W.N.; Alloway, D.M.; Placencia, D.; Ratcliff, E.; Brumbach, M.  Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 30, 717-731.  (2009)

4. “Electrodeposited, “textured” poly(3-hexylthiophene) (e-P3HT) films for photovoltaic applications.”  Ratcliff, E.L., Jenkins, J.L.; Nebesny, K.; Armstrong, N.R. Chemistry of Materials, 20, 5796-5806.  (2008)

3.  "Directed electrodeposition of polymer films using spatially controllable electric field gradients.” Ratcliff  E.L. and Hillier, A.C.  Langmuir, 23, 9905-9910 (2007).

2. “Scanning electrochemical mapping of spatially localized electrochemical reactions induced by surface potential gradients,” Jayaraman, S.; May, E.L. and Hillier, A.C.  Langmuir, 22, 10322-10328 (2006).

1.  “Rapid and reversible generation of a microscale pH gradient using surface electric fields,” May E. L. and Hillier A.C. Analytical Chemistry, 77, 6487-6493, (2005).